I.until [Brit ənˈtɪl, Am ˌənˈtɪl]PREPWhen used as a preposition in positive sentences until is translated by jusqu'à: they're staying until Monday = ils restent jusqu'à lundi. Remember that jusqu'à + le becomes jusqu'au and jusqu'à + les becomes jusqu'aux: until the right moment = jusqu'au bon moment; until the exams = jusqu'aux examens. In negative sentences not until is translated by ne…pas avant: I can't see you until Friday = je ne peux pas vous voir avant vendredi. When used as a conjunction in positive sentences until is translated by jusqu'à ce que + subjunctive: we'll stay here until Maya comes back = nous resterons ici jusqu'à ce que Maya revienne. In negative sentences where the two verbs have different subjects not until is translated by ne…pas avant que + subjunctive: we won't leave until Maya comes back = nous ne partirons pas avant que Maya revienne. In negative sentences where the two verbs have the same subject not until is translated by pas avant de + infininitive: we won't leave until we've seen Claire = nous ne partirons pas avant d'avoir vu Claire.
I.much [Brit mʌtʃ, Am mətʃ]ADVWhen much is used as an adverb, it is translated by beaucoup: it's much longer = c'est beaucoup plus long; she doesn't talk much = elle ne parle pas beaucoup. For particular usages, see I. below. When much is used as a pronoun, it is usually translated by beaucoup: there is much to learn = il y a beaucoup à apprendre. However, in negative sentences grand-chose is also used: I didn't learn much = je n'ai pas beaucoup appris or je n'ai pas appris grand-chose. When much is used as an adjective, it is translated by beaucoup de: they don't have much money = ils n'ont pas beaucoup d'argent. For particular usages see III. below.